Modern societies face high demands for skilled professionals, able to successfully design, deploy and utilize complex Information Technology (IT) –enabled socio-technical systems at everincreasing levels of reliability and security. Contrary to traditional education practices, the high-level training required to fulfill this demand should rely on the principle that the learners are themselves responsible for their learning process, that they have control over this process, and that the process aims at developing cross-disciplinary and problem-driven competences, not only at acquiring content knowledge. However, such training requires the presence of a highly interactive, problem-oriented environment for technology-supported learning (or e-learning). This poster presents a doctoral research project, which aims at designing, validating and monitoring a collaborative e-learning environment based on the principles of Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS). In order to validate its outcomes, the project will rely on two real-life professional training programs: in Software Engineering for software managers and in e-Government for public managers. The poster presents the objectives, research methodology and expected results from this project.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) Learning Management System (LMS). Following a selection process we analyze the functionalities and characteristics of 8 tools commonly used in formal and informal education. More specifically we focus on the availability of different tools concerning communication and assistance, such as, forum, email, calendar, portfolios, etc. Our analysis showed that despite their similarities, the appropriateness of different FLOSS LMSs can be greatly affected by the specific needs of students, instructors and institutions.
We present a graph-based model of a generic type system for an OO language. The type system supports the features of recursive types, generics and interfaces, which are commonly found in modern OO languages such as Java. In the classical graph theory, we define type graphs, instantiation graphs and conjunction graphs that naturally illustrate the relations among types, generics and interfaces within complex OO programs. The model employs a combination of nominal and anonymous nodes to represent respectively types that are identified by names and structures, and defines graph-based relations and operations on types including equivalence, subtyping, conjunction and instantiation. Algorithms based on the graph structures are designed for the implementation of the type system. We believe that this type system is important for the development of a graphbased logical foundation of a formal method for verification of and reasoning about OO programs.
It can be argued that participating in free/libre open source software (FLOSS) projects can have a positive effect in the contributor's learning process. The need to interact with other contributors, to read other people's code, write documentation, or use different tools, can motivate and implicitly foster learning. In order to validate this statement we design an appropriate questionnaire asking FLOSS contributors about their experience in FLOSS projects. In this paper, we illustrate how this questionnaire was designed and what we expect to learn from the answers. We conclude the paper with a preview of the results from three cases studies.
Free and open source software projects are often perceived to be of high quality. To a great extent the success of open source software seems to be due to an implicit but effective connection between communication and contribution in its development process. In this paper, we present a snapshot of the state the art on quality and success of Open Source Software (OSS) based on a review of the literature. For each of these concepts, we describe various measures considered in the literature and a number of methods by which they are obtained. Contributions to an Open Source Software (OSS) project are made through communication among developers and users. We elaborate on the concrete notions of communication and contribution in Open Source Software (OSS) and their links.
Integrating formal methods into UML opens up a way to complement UML-based software development with precise semantics, development methodologies, as well as rigorous verification and refinement techniques. In this paper, we present an approach to integrate a formal method to practical component-based model driven development through defining a UML profile that maps the concepts of the formal method as UML stereotypes, and implementing the profile into a CASE tool. Unlike most of the previous works in this vein, which concentrate on verifying the correctness of the models built in the development process, we focus on how the full development process can be driven by applying the refinement rules of the formal method in an incremental and interactive manner. The formal method we adopt in this work is the refinement for Component and Object Systems (rCOS). We demonstrate the development activities in the CASE tool using an example.
Recently, software verification is being used to prove the presence of contradictions in source code and thus reveal potential weaknesses in the code or provide assistance to the compiler optimization. Compared to verification of correctness properties, the translation from source code to logic can be very simple and thus easy to solve by automated theorem provers. In this paper, we present a translation of Java into logic that is suitable for proving the presence of contradictions in code. We show that the translation, which is based on the Jimple language, can be used to analyze real-world programs, and discuss some issues that arise from differences between Java code and its bytecode
Electronic Governance for Sustainable Development (EGOV4SD) refers to the use of Information Technology (IT) to transform the working of government and its interaction with the public while advancing socio-economic development and protecting natural resources for future generations. Although significant efforts are dedicated to EGOV and SD individually, research at the intersection of both domains is scarce and a systematic EGOV4SD research framework is yet to emerge. In order to contribute to the development of such a framework and in particular to identify how EGOV initiatives contribute to the SD goals in the current government practice, this paper presents and analyzes ten case studies of existing EGOV initiatives with explicit SD objectives. Based on the EGOV4SD assessment framework, each case study is characterized by its context (who, where and when), problem (what), solution (how) and contribution – how the solution addresses the problem (why). The analysis identified the list of SD problems addressed by the case studies and the list of EGOV solutions applied to address such goals, and correlated both lists across the case studies to find out typical problem-solution patterns applied in the EGOV4SD practice today.
This paper discusses FLOSS communities as a prime example of learning networks, i.e. informal, interconnected sets of individuals mutually supporting shared knowledge acquisition and committed to self-defined goals. In particular, it addresses how the incorporation of a web-based, certification platform for Free / Libre Open Source Software in community culture and practice may increase the community impact both as learning network and open, high-quality software producer.
Electronic Governance (EGOV) research studies the use of Information and Communication Technologies to improve governance processes. Sustainable Development (SD) research studies possible development routes that satisfy the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs. Despite substantial progress in advancing both domains independently, little research exists at their intersection – how to utilize EGOV in support of SD. We call this intersection Electronic Governance for Sustainable Development (EGOV4SD). This paper: 1) proposes a conceptual framework for EGOV4SD, 2) proposes EGOV4SD research assessment framework and 3) applies both frameworks to determine the state of EGOV4SD research. The main contribution of the paper is establishing a foundation for EGOV4SD research.
The impact of mobile technology on governance and development has attracted significant interest in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Development and Electronic Governance communities. There is growing consensus that governance mechanisms must complement access to technology to achieve greater impact on development. However, few or no rigorous research exists to show how such mechanisms can support the delivery of mobile services to vulnerable groups. This study fill this important gap by first providing a conceptual framework, based on the Choice Framework and the Structuration Theory, to elaborate on the relationship between ICT, governance and citizen capabilities. Second, the framework is applied to analyze livelihood needs of 45 women head porters interviewed in Accra. Third, as all women under study have access to mobile phones, we determine which governance mechanisms are needed to support the delivery of mobile services to them. Results show that three governance mechanisms enable the contribution of mobile technology to meeting the livelihood needs of this group: 1) updating financial and telecommunication regulations to enable the provision of mobile-based services e.g. mobile microfinance, to vulnerable groups; 2) mobilizing local communities in the production of local contents; and 3) engaging non-governmental organizations in building capacity of government agencies in mobile service delivery and in training vulnerable communities in effective use of mobile technology to access information and services critical to their needs. We conclude by discussing the use of the Structuration Theory along with the Choice Framework to shape development processes based on citizen needs and by discussing the applicability of our framework to similar vulnerable groups.
This paper reviews the nature and responsibilities of Government Chief Information Officer (GCIO) positions, defines competencies required to fulfill such responsibilities, and presents the results of a survey of 78 education programs from 21 countries to determine to what extent they build GCIO-relevant competencies and how much attention different programs pay to policy, design, implementation and operation aspects of the public sector Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The survey covers CIO, Electronic Government, Technology Management, Leadership, Public Administration, Development, Sustainable Development and ICT for Development programs, all analyzed using a single conceptual framework. The survey revealed, among others: that the programs are strongly oriented toward one discipline, that no program fulfills all competency needs expected from GCIO positions, that such needs can be fulfilled by combinations of existing programs, and that a truly international GCIO curriculum is yet to emerge.
Public libraries play an important part in the development of a community. Today, they are seen as more than store houses of books. Today’s library is responsible for the dissemination of online and offline information. Public access computers are becoming increasingly popular as all demographics increasingly understand the need for Internet access. Using a series of surveys conducted in 12 libraries across the state of Michigan, the current study is a step towards understanding why the computing facility is widely used and what are the motivations behind its use. In addition, barriers and other factors that hinder usage are also discussed. The findings from this study will help policy makers and library administrators evaluate the current allocation of scarce resources, help them promote greater use of the library’s resources, and guide their future course of action. The study is conducted as part of a federally funded public computing center grant.
We introduce a new quantitative measure of international scholarly impact of countries by using bibliometric techniques based on publication and citation data. We present a case study to illustrate the use of our proposed measure in the subject area Energy during 1996 to 2009. We also present geographical maps to visualize knowledge flows among countries. Finally, using correlation analysis between publication output and international scholarly impact, we study the explanatory power of the applied measure.
consuming part in program debugging. Fault localization techniques can help to automate this task. Particularly promising are static proof-based techniques that rely on an encoding of error traces into trace formulas. By identifying irrelevant portions of the trace formula, the possible causes of the error can be isolated. One limitation of these approaches is that they do not take into account the control flow of the program and therefore miss common causes of errors, such as faulty branching conditions. This limitation is inherent to the way the error traces are encoded. In this paper, we present a new flow-sensitive encoding of error traces into trace formulas. The new encoding enables proof-based techniques to identify irrelevant conditional choices in an error trace and to include a justification for the truth value of branching conditions that are relevant for the localized cause of an error. We apply our new encoding to the fault localization technique based on error invariants and show that it produces more meaningful error explanations than previous approaches.