The super-dense computation model provides an abstraction of real-time behaviour of computing systems. Logics to deal with this model are being studied. In the paper, we propose a combination of a linear temporal logic and an interval logic, and demonstrate how this combination can be used to specify a real-time semantics of an OCCAM-like programming language and its real-time properties, where the super-dense computation model is adopted.
This paper is a contribution to the semantics of the emerging discipline of enterprise engineering. We study the composition of models of individual enterprises into the model which represents the behaviour of an extended or a virtual enterprise. The former corresponds intuitively to the union of models: all activities taking place within and between individual enterprises. The latter to intersection: coordinated and shared activities which utilise the resources of all participating enterprises. Modelling adopts a unifying business perspective upon a firm (a discrete parts manufacturer), its structure (available resources) and behaviour (activities which utilise resources). Model composition is based on formal semantics. The result is a precise technical meaning for an extended and a virtual enterprise, suitable for symbolic execution, reasoning and foremost -- for understanding the difference between both concepts.
This paper is a study of the formal semantics of an extended and a virtual enterprise and how it is possible to represent their behaviour by the composition of models of individual enterprises. We consider core activities of an enterprise for manufacturing discrete parts products, modelled in terms of resources, processes and business goals (customer and purchase orders). The extended enterprise allows enterprises to interact, by matching customer and purchase orders. The virtual enterprise allows them to cooperate, by processes which execution cross organisational boundaries. The result is a precise technical meaning for an extended and a virtual enterprise, suitable for symbolic execution, reasoning and foremost, for understanding the difference between both concepts.
We extend Duration Calculus to a logic which allows description of Discrete Processes where several steps of computation can occur at the same time point. Moreover, the order of occurrence of these steps is relevant. The resulting logic is called Duration Calculus of Weakly Monotonic Time (WDC). It allows effects such as true synchrony and digitisation to be modelled. As an example, We formulate a new semantics of Timed CSP assuming that the communication and computation take no time. We also outline a semantics of shared variable concurrency under similar assumptions. We introduce a notion of deformation of time in (WDC). We study the duration calculus properties which remain invariant under such deformation of time.
While decision theory provides an appealing normative framework for representing rich preference structures, eliciting utility or value functions typically incurs a large cost. For many applications involving interactive sys tems this overhead precludes the use of for mal decisiontheoretic models of preference. Instead of performing elicitation in a vacuum, it would be useful if we could augment di rectly elicited preferences with some appro priate default information. In this paper we propose a casebased approach to alleviat ing the preference elicitation bottleneck. As suming the existence of a population of users from whom we have elicited complete or in complete preference structures, we propose eliciting the preferences of a new user inter actively and incrementally, using the closest existing preference structures as potential de faults. Since a notion of closeness demands a measure of distance among preference struc tures, this paper takes the first step of study ing various distance measures over fully and partially specified preference structures. We explore the use of Euclidean distance, Spear man's footrule, and define a new measure, the probabilistic distance. We provide computa tional techniques for all three measures.
The need to reason with imprecise probabil ities arises in a wealth of situations rang ing from pooling of knowledge from multi ple experts to abstractionbased probabilistic planning. Researchers have typically repre sented imprecise probabilities using intervals and have developed a wide array of differ ent techniques to suit their particular require ments. In this paper we provide an analysis of some of the central issues in representing and reasoning with interval probabilities. At the focus of our analysis is the probability crossproduct operator and its interval gen eralization, the ccoperator. We perform an extensive study of these operators relative to manipulation of sets of probability distribut tions. This study provides insight into the sources of the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to handling probability intervals. We demonstrate the application of our results to the problems of inference in in terval Bayesian networks and projection and evaluation of abstract probabilistic plans.
A realistic system for planning with uncertain in formation in partially observable domains must be able to reason about sensing actions and to condition its further actions on the sensed infor mation. Among implemented planning systems, we can distinguish two approaches to contingent decisiontheoretic planning. The first is char acterized by a highly unconstrained plan space, while the second is characterized by a constrained and inflexible specification of plan space. In this paper, we take a middle ground between these two approaches that we consider to be more prac tical. We permit the user to specify the structure of the space of possible plans to be considered but to do so in a flexible manner. This flexibility is obtained through the use of a modular represen tation. We separate the representation of actions from the representation of domain relations and we separate those from the representation of the plan space. Actions and domain relations are represented with schematic Bayes net fragments and plan space is represented using programming lan guage constructs. We present a planning system that can find optimal plans given this represen tation.
We present an experiment in modelling and analysis of an application domain: competitive manufacturing. The result is a unique formal model which combines previously separate models for marketing (competition) and enterprises (coordination). In particular, we capture formally the marketing mix: product, price, place and promotion, and its effect on the sale of the enterprise. The model is built in stages: market without marketing, marketing without limits and marketing under limited resources. Analysis includes justifying abstraction, down to two enterprises competing for a single consumer.
The major problem of checking a parallel composition of real-time systems for a real-time property is the combinatorial explosion of state spaces. To avoid this problem, one can use bisimulation equivalence w.r.t. the property to be checked to minimise the system state space. In this paper, we define such equivalence for the integrated linear duration properties of real-time automata network with shared variables. Based on this technique we develop an algorithm for checking a real-time automata network with shared variables w.r.t. a linear duration property. Using Fischer Protocol as a case study, we show that our algorithm can avoid exhaustive state space exploration significantly in some cases in comparison to some other tool in the literature.
We describe ongoing work toward development of a decisiontheoretic agent to help users choose videos based on their preferences. The DIVA (Decision Theoretic Interactive Video Advisor) system elicits user preferences using a casebased technique. Hard constraints are used to permit the user to communi cate temporary deviations from his basic preferences. If the user is not happy with the system's recommen dations, he can provide feedback, which is used to modify the represented preferences and generate a new set of recommendations. We describe the fundamen tal algorithms, the implementation, and some results from some initial experimentation.
We introduce a necessary test for the claims about provable fault-tolerance: having proved to tolerate several faults, we must tolerate (provably) any combination of them. One notable failure to pass this test is bisimulation. The paper presents a class of bisimulations which are fault-monotonic and within CCS support compositional design of component specifications by stepwise refinement, each step increasing or at least preserving the current level of fault-tolerance.
The work presented here concerns domain description, domain model and requirements capture for an accounting system for the UNU financial administration. A novel aspect of this work is the development of a formal model for accounting concepts and the use of this model as a reference when defining requirements.
The RAISE Specification Language has no ``real time'' features. So, it is difficult to use it to specify real time applications. Now, we consider adding time to RSL. Our first attempt following Anne Haxthausen's proposal of encoding DC in RSL, we set up a proof assistant called DC/RJ. It is constructed from encoding of both DC semantics and proof system of Interval Logic and DC, and uses the RAISE Justification tool to do the verification for DC. In this paper, the author first introduces how DC can be integrated with RSL in detail. Then the construction and hierarchy of DC/RJ are explained. The Gas Burner example is used to show how DC/RJ works. A comparison among DC proof assistant systems, the problems and perspectives of our system are discussed at the end.
In this paper, we present a rigorous design of a Fault Diagnosis and Isolation (FDI) algorithm. The system is modelled as a hybrid system with a network of parallel components. The requirement is specified in Duration Calculus. We use traditional program logic, suitably extended, to verify the discrete component and subsequently derive a number of properties of the system. Finally, the requirement is shown to be satisfied by proving that it can be deduced from the system properties.
We present an educational tool for bringing the information contained in a Bayesian network to the end user in an easily intelligible form. The banter shell is designed to tutor users in evaluation of hypotheses and selection of optimal diagnostic procedures. banter can be used with any Bayesian network containing nodes that can be classified into hypotheses, observations, and diagnostic procedures. The system enables one to present various types of queries to the network, to test one's ablity to select optimal diagnostic procedures, and to request explanations. We describe the system's capabil ities by illustrating how it functions with two structurally different network models of realworld medical problems.
We present an extension of discrete relative time process algebra where recursion, propositional signals, a counting process creation operator and the state operator are combined. A semantics of $\varphi\!\!^-$SDL, a small subset of SDL that is closely connected with full SDL, is proposed which describes the meaning of $\varphi\!\!^-$SDL constructs using this extension. This semantics allows for the generation of finitely branching transition systems for $\varphi\!\!^-$SDL specifications.
An introductory course on Software Engineering using Formal Methods. The course includes an example (Credit Card) of an RSL specification, as well as some teaching materials.
In this document we continue the work started in ``Developing a Financial Information System'', UNU/IIST Research Report 81. That document concentrated on the taxation system and on its detailed development. Here we take a broader view, sketching the taxation system and also the budget, treasury and external aid and loan systems. Then we show how these may all be combined, allowing not only ``vertical'' communication within each system but also ``horizontal'' communication between components of different systems. We thus provide a top-level specification of a national financial information system.
This document is the third of a series of three recording the output of the second phase of UNU/IIST's MultiScript project. It extends the description and the formal specification of multi-directional, multi-lingual documents presented in the UNU/IIST report No 105 to cover the creation and editing of such documents. The second document in the series, UNUIIST report No 112 covers the display and printing of multi-directional, multi-lingual documents.