Efforts to promote sustainable broadband Internet adoption urge new attention to the classic diffusion of innovations paradigm. For this study, innovation attributes were reconceptualized following Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). In a sample of inner-city residents, the model accounted for 36% of the variance in intentions to adopt broadband technology and services, primarily from the SCT variables of expected outcomes and self-efficacy. Prior habitual use of the Internet was also a predictor. Price sensitivity was unrelated to adoption. Among demographic variables, only age had a significant (negative) relationship to broadband adoption after accounting for the SCT variables. Recommendations for the design and monitoring of sustainable broadband adoption interventions are made based on these findings.
A promising strategy to promote good governance is the harnessing of opportunities provided by the use of mobile phones, which are widely accessible to most segments of society. A study recently presented at the International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, of which two authors are from the UNU-IIST Centre for Electronic Governance, investigated the strategic use of mobile technologies by governments to achieve the desired development and social inclusion outcomes. The study focused on the case of migrant head porters – local micro-logistics service providers – from Ghana. Its implications include supporting policy efforts for achieving the Millennium Development Goals on poverty alleviation and gender (specifically, women’s empowerment).
Theories of graphs and graph transformations form an important part of the mathematical foundations of computing, and have been applied in a wide range of areas from the design and analysis of algorithms to the formalization of various computer systems and programs. In this thesis, we study how graphs and graph transformations can be used to model the static structure and dynamic behavior of object-orientated and service-oriented systems.
Our work is mainly motivated by the difficulty in understanding and reasoning about object-orientated and service-oriented programs, which have more sophisticated features compared with traditional procedural programs. We show that the use of graphs and graph transformations provides both an intuitive visualization and a formal representation of object-orientated and service-oriented programs with these features, improving people’s understanding of the execution states and behaviors of these programs.
We provide a graph-based type system, operational semantics and refinement calculus for an object-oriented language. In this framework, we define class structures and execution states of oo programs as directed and labeled graphs, called class graphs and state graphs, respectively. The type system checks whether a program is well-typed based on its class graph, while the operational semantics defines each step of program execution as a simple graph transformations between state graphs. We show the operational semantics is type-safe in that the execution of a well-typed program does not “go wrong”. Based on the operational semantics, we study the notion of structure refinement of oo programs as graph transformations between their class graphs. We provide a few groups of refinement rules for various purposes such as class expansion and polymorphism elimination and prove their soundness and relative completeness.
We also propose a graph-based representation of service-oriented systems specified in a service-oriented process calculus. In this framework, we define states of service-oriented systems as hierarchical graphs that naturally capture the hierarchical nature of service structures. For this, we exploit a suitable graph algebra and set up a hierarchical graph model, in which graph transformations are studied following the well-known Double-Pushout approach. Based on this model, we provide a graph transformation system with a few sets of graph transformation rules for various purposes such as process copy and process reduction. We prove that the graph transformation system is sound and complete with respect to the reduction semantics of the calculus.
This paper presents the results after three years of running of an instructional method that utilizes free/libre open source software (FLOSS) projects as tools for teaching software engineering in formal education. In the last three academic years, a total of 268 juniors majoring in Informatics (in a 4-year program) participated in study, assuming the roles of testers, developers, and requirements engineers. Students appreciated the benefits gained by the method and identified aspects that require further improvement. In the following, we present (a) the details of our method, (b) students’ opinions as recorded through a questionnaire including both closed and open ended questions, and (c) conclusions on how the use of FLOSS projects can be applied and proved beneficial for the students.
The television landscape is in a state of flux. In this new environment, profit-driven media companies have to balance tradeoffs between traditional and new channels of video distribution to optimize returns on their investments in content generation. This chapter describes the challenges traditional television service providers face in adapting their strategies to an environment in which the internet is playing an increasingly prominent role as a new distribution channel. In the short to intermediate run there is the challenge of finding ways to monetize an internet audience without cannibalizing profits earned through traditional distribution channels. The longer-term challenge is adapting to a distribution technology that embeds a fundamentally different economic logic for video market organization. In this chapter, we describe and analyze current trends in the internet television market and traditional television industry players’ efforts to respond to the opportunities and threats posed by internet distribution.
In order to precisely analyze healthcare workflows, we examine how healthcare workflows can be modeled and verified with an elementary and concise timed CSP extension. To avoid considering healthcare workflows in isolation, we investigate the usage of our CSP dialect for formally modeling workflows alongside the instruction model of the openEHR specification set, which is a general, maintainable, and interoperable approach to electronic health records. Hence, we present a CSP model for openEHR instructions, which allows timed reasoning, and also integrates a basic notion of data and undefinedness. We show that this CSP dialect is suited to verify important properties of healthcare workflows, like workflow consistency, checking against timed specifications, and resource scheduling.
This chapter gives an overview of the recent advances in GUItesting.Considering the increasing popularity and fast software development cycles (e.g.,desktop and mobile applications), GUI testing gains more importance as it allows us to verify the behavior of a system from the user’s perspective.Thus, it can quickly uncover relevant bugs, which a user could face. Traditional capture-replay GUI testing approaches do not meet the demands of developers anymore. Therefore, there is an increasing research activity in model-based GUI testing, where the user interaction behavior is simulated using a graph-based model.In the following, we outline different graphical notations to describe feasible user interactions, and methods to generate and execute test cases from these models. We discuss the benefits and limitations of the state-of-the-art in GUI testing research and give a brief outlook about new trends and possibilities to improve the GUI testing automation.
In prime event structures with binary con°icts (pes-bc)3 a branching cell  is a subset of events closed under downward causalityand immediate con°ict relations. This means that no event outside the branching cell can be in con°ict with or enable any event inside the branching cell. It bears a strong resemblance to stubborn sets, a partial order reduction method on transition systems. A stubborn set (at a given state) is a subset of actions such that no execution consisting entirely of actions outside the stubborn set can be in con°ict with or enable actions that are inside the stubborn set.
A rigorous study of the relationship between the two ideas, however, is not straightforward due to the facts that 1) stubborn sets utilise sophis-ticated causality and con°ict relations that invalidate the stability and coherence of event structures , 2) without stability it becomes very di±cult to de¯ne concepts like pre¯xes and branching cells, which pre-require a clear notion of causality, and 3) it is challenging to devise a technique for identifying `proper' subsets of transitions as `events' such that the induced event-based system captures exactly the causality and con°ict information needed by stubborn sets.